Modals

  • HTML/CSS Available
  • Web Component Deprecated
  • Last Updated

    2.29.0

Modals gather information, complete a subtask, or provide additional information without losing the context of an underlying page.

Variations

Default

Use when displaying information that does not require a user action, such as a read-only document or a supplemental video.

Default
Default
Click to Trigger Default Modal

I am a dismissible modal that displays non-essential information.

Close
HTML Web Component
<div class="mds-modal">
    <div class="mds-modal__wrapper">
        <section role="dialog" aria-labelledby="title---26521" class="mds-modal__container" aria-hidden="true">
            <div class="mds-modal__inner">
                <header class="mds-modal__header">
                    <div class="mds-modal__actions">
                        <button class="mds-button mds-button--icon-only" type="button" data-mds-modal-close>
                            <svg class="mds-icon mds-button__icon mds-button__icon--left">
                                <use xlink:href="#remove">
                                    <title>Close</title>
                                </use>
                            </svg>
                        </button>
                    </div>
                    <h1 class="mds-modal__title" id="title---26521">
                        Dismissible Modal
                    </h1>
                </header>
                <div class="mds-modal__content">
                    <p>I am a dismissible modal that displays non-essential information.</p>
                </div>
            </div>
        </section>
    </div>
</div>
<!-- Modal must be appended at the end of the <body> -->
<mds-modal title="Dismissible Modal">
    <p>I am a dismissible modal that displays non-essential information.</p>
    <span slot="mds-modal-actions">
        <mds-button type="button" variation="icon-only" icon="remove">Close</mds-button>
    </span>
</mds-modal>
  • Always include an icon-only Button to close.
  • Dissmissed by clicking the close button, pressing escape, or clicking outside the modal.

No Title

No Title
No Title
Click to Trigger Modal with No Title

I am a modal that displays non-essential information and has no title.

Close
HTML Web Component
<div class="mds-modal">
    <div class="mds-modal__wrapper">
        <section role="dialog" aria-labelledby="title---97163" class="mds-modal__container" aria-hidden="true">
            <div class="mds-modal__inner">
                <header class="mds-modal__header mds-modal__header--no-title">
                    <div class="mds-modal__actions">
                        <button class="mds-button mds-button--icon-only" type="button">
                            <svg class="mds-icon mds-button__icon mds-button__icon--left">
                                <use xlink:href="#remove">
                                    <title>Close</title>
                                </use>
                            </svg>
                        </button>
                    </div>
                    <h1 class="mds-modal__title" id="title---97163">
                        Dismissible Modal
                    </h1>
                </header>
                <div class="mds-modal__content">
                    <p>I am a modal that displays non-essential information and has no title.</p>
                </div>
            </div>
        </section>
    </div>
</div>
<!-- Modal must be appended at the end of the <body> -->
<mds-modal title="Dismissible Modal" title-hidden>
    <p>I am a modal that displays non-essential information and has no title.</p>
    <span slot="mds-modal-actions">
        <mds-button type="button" variation="icon-only" icon="remove">Close</mds-button>
    </span>
</mds-modal>
  • Always include an icon-only Button to close.
  • Dissmissed by clicking the close button, pressing escape, or clicking outside the modal.

Action Required

Use when a task must be completed, such as entering data and then saving or confirming.

Action Required
Action Required
Click to Trigger Modal with Action Required

The user can’t close this modal by clicking outside of it. The user must select one of the button options inside the modal header to close it.

Cancel Save
HTML Web Component
<div class="mds-modal">
    <div class="mds-modal__wrapper">
        <section role="dialog" aria-labelledby="title---85877" class="mds-modal__container" aria-hidden="true">
            <div class="mds-modal__inner">
                <header class="mds-modal__header">
                    <div class="mds-modal__actions">
                        <button class="mds-button " type="button" data-mds-modal-close>
                            Cancel
                        </button>
                        <button class="mds-button mds-button--primary" type="button">
                            Save
                        </button>
                    </div>
                    <h1 class="mds-modal__title" id="title---85877">
                        Action Required Modal
                    </h1>
                </header>
                <div class="mds-modal__content">
                    <p>The user can’t close this modal by clicking outside of it. The user must select one of the button options inside the modal header to close it.</p>
                </div>
            </div>
        </section>
    </div>
</div>
<!-- Modal must be appended at the end of the <body> -->
<mds-modal title="Action Required Modal" action-required>
    <p>The user can’t close this modal by clicking outside of it. The user must select one of the button options inside the modal header to close it.</p>
    <span slot="mds-modal-actions">
        <mds-button type="button" variation="secondary">Cancel</mds-button>
        <mds-button type="button" variation="primary">Save</mds-button>
    </span>
</mds-modal>
  • Use when a task requires intentional confirmation or cancellation; the modal cannot be dismissed by pressing escape or clicking outside the modal.
  • Always use a primary Button for the confirmation action and a secondary Button for the cancellation action.

Sizing

Modals are available at a single size, which uses a bold level 5 heading (20px) for the title text and medium Buttons.

Widths

Modals are available in three predefined widths: 600px, 900px (default), and 1200px. Width can be configured using modifier classes or props.

600px Wide
900px Wide (Default)
1200px Wide
  • Predefined widths use both a max-width and a width: 90% rule, ensuring modals are responsive on narrow viewports.

Customizing Widths

Predefined widths are a starting point. If requirements call for a different modal width, work with a designer to create custom width styles in your product’s CSS.

Product CSS
[.my-custom-modal-width] .mds-modal__container {
    max-width: 1000px;
}
Product Markup
<!-- HTML -->
<div class="mds-modal [my-custom-modal-width] mds-modal--open mds-modal--active"> ... </div>
<!-- Web Component -->
<mds-modal class="[my-custom-modal-width]"> ... </mds-modal>

Use When

  • Providing supplemental tasks required by the underlying page.
  • Providing non-essential information related to the underlying page.
  • Content requires full attention.

Don’t Use When

  • Requesting a simple action, like saving changes. Instead, use a Dialog.
  • Conveying brief thoughts or status changes. Instead, use a Notification.
  • The modal content can be incorporated into the underlying page without complicating the page’s intent.

Visual Language

Modals consist of three elements:

  1. Header, which holds the title and controls.
  2. Content area, which holds the information being presented.
  3. Page overlay, which partially blocks out the underlying page to focus attention on the modal content.
Anatomy of modal components.
  • Controls, which are usually Buttons, are always placed on the right side of the modal header.
  • Always use medium-sized Buttons in the modal header.
  • Place icon-only buttons to the left of standard primary and secondary buttons.
Place icon-only buttons to the left of standard buttons.
  • When placing text in the content area element, define typography as custom styles within your product. The modal’s content area does not include any default text styling.
  • Consider applying a custom z-index value when you compose this component with other layered components (e.g., Dialogs, Tooltips, Popovers or Notifications) to meet your product requirements.

Behaviors

  • Action-required modals can only be closed by choosing an action provided (e.g., Save or Cancel). They cannot be dismissed by pressing escape or clicking outside of the modal.
  • Modals that do not require an explicit action of a user can be closed by:
    • Clicking the close button
    • Pressing the escape key
    • Clicking outside the modal
  • Once a modal reaches its maximum height, the header will remain fixed and content will scroll within the container.
  • Modals are centered horizontally and vertically in the viewport.
Modal alignment in viewport.

Editorial

Use title case for titles. (This means capitalize prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters and all primary words.)

Dismissable Modals

  • Titles should tell you what’s inside the modal. Consider using words from the link that launched the modal. Titles can also be questions.
  • Content can scroll in the modal if need be, but the shorter, the better.

Action-is-Required Modals

  • Titles should tell the user what they need to do. Consider starting with words from the link that launched the modal, and add other words to express a complete thought. Avoid questions.
  • Content should tell users why they’re doing something, how to do it, and the consequences of not doing it, if applicable.
  • Content can scroll in the modal if need be, but the shorter, the better.

CSS

Class References

Class
Applies to
Outcome

mds-modal--width-600px

mds-modal

Renders a 600px wide modal.

mds-modal--width-900px

mds-modal

Renders a 900px wide modal.

mds-modal--width-1200px

mds-modal

Renders a 1200px wide modal.

mds-modal--open

mds-modal

Invokes overlay and triggers visibility of modal.

mds-modal--active

mds-modal

Starts animation of the modal.

mds-overlay--active

mds-overlay

Opacity increased to .5.

mds-modal__header--no-title

mds-modal__header

Removes header borders and margins.

Web Component

Props

When setting props as attributes on a custom HTML element, use kebab-case instead of camelCase.

Prop
Type
Validation
Default
Description

additionalClass

String

A space-separated list of class names that will be appended to the default mds-modal class.

ariaDescribedby

String

ariaLabelledby must not be set

A space-separated list of element id whose content describes the intent of the modal.

ariaLabelledby

String

ariaDescribedby must not be set

The id of the modal’s title.

actionRequired

Boolean

If true, requires a user to choose one of the actions in the modal, cannot be dismissed using the escape key or by clicking the overlay.

title

String

Required

Sets the title text.

titleHidden

Boolean

false

If true, visibly hides the modal’s title. The title is still present for assistive technologies.

triggeredBy

String

Required

The id of the modal’s trigger element.

visible

Boolean

false

Sets the visibility of the modal.

width

String

One of: 600px, 900px, 1200px

900px

Alters the width of the modal.

Slots

Default Slot

Pass content in between the <mds-modal></mds-modal> tags to set the modal’s content.

Named Slots

Slot Name
Description

mds-modal-actions

Displays actions, usually Buttons, on the right side of the modal.

Methods

Method Name
Description

open()

Opens the modal.

dismiss()

Dismisses the modal.

Events

Event Name
Description

mds-modal-dismissed

Triggers when the modal is dismissed.

mds-modal-activated

Triggers when the modal is initially launched.

mds-modal-opened

Triggers when the modal is opened.

Additional Behaviors

Automatic Dismiss Behavior

If action-required is false:

  • Any icon-only Button web component using the remove icon placed in the mds-modal-actions slot will automatically call the dismiss() method.
  • Pressing the escape key or clicking the background overlay will call the dismiss() method.

If action-required is true, you must set up the event handlers for the buttons in the mds-modal-actions slot yourself.

Usage Examples

Setting title, id, actions, and actionRequired via props. Using the default slot for modal content:

<!-- Modal must be appended at the end of the <body> -->
<mds-modal id="my-modal" title="My Modal Title" width="1200px" action-required>
    [Modal Content]
    <span slot="mds-modal-actions">
        <mds-button variation="secondary">Cancel</mds-button>
        <mds-button variation="primary">Save</mds-button>
    </span>
</mds-modal>

Implementation

  • By default, modals use the dialog role, ensuring screen readers properly announce the element.
  • Use the aria-labelledby attribute on the <section> element to reference the id assigned to the Modal’s title to provide screen readers with accessible text used to describe a modal’s purpose.
  • Optionally, to provide a more detailed description of a modal, add a aria-describedby attribute to the <section> element and reference the id of a body of text that further describes the modal’s purpose.
  • If a modal is visually hidden but present in the DOM, add aria-hidden="true" to the modal’s <section> element to prevent it from being read by a screen reader. When the modal becomes visible, update this attribute to false, allowing a screen reader to access its content.

Best Practices

  • Trap focus inside a modal when it’s open.
  • When a modal is closed, return focus to the triggering element (typically a button) on the underlying page.

Additional Resources